35 U.S.C. 112: Specification
Taken from the Ninth Edition of the MPEP, Revision 10.2019, Last Revised in June 2020
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35 U.S.C. 112 Specification.
[Editor Note: Applicable to any patent application filed on or after September 16, 2012. See 35 U.S.C. 112 (pre-AIA) for the law otherwise applicable.]
- (a) IN GENERAL.—The specification shall contain a written description of the invention, and of the manner and process of making and using it, in such full, clear, concise, and exact terms as to enable any person skilled in the art to which it pertains, or with which it is most nearly connected, to make and use the same, and shall set forth the best mode contemplated by the inventor or joint inventor of carrying out the invention.
- (b) CONCLUSION.—The specification shall conclude with one or more claims particularly pointing out and distinctly claiming the subject matter which the inventor or a joint inventor regards as the invention.
- (c) FORM.—A claim may be written in independent or, if the nature of the case admits, in dependent or multiple dependent form.
- (d) REFERENCE IN DEPENDENT FORMS.—Subject to subsection (e), a claim in dependent form shall contain a reference to a claim previously set forth and then specify a further limitation of the subject matter claimed. A claim in dependent form shall be construed to incorporate by reference all the limitations of the claim to which it refers.
- (e) REFERENCE IN MULTIPLE DEPENDENT FORM.—A claim in multiple dependent form shall contain a reference, in the alternative only, to more than one claim previously set forth and then specify a further limitation of the subject matter claimed. A multiple dependent claim shall not serve as a basis for any other multiple dependent claim. A multiple dependent claim shall be construed to incorporate by reference all the limitations of the particular claim in relation to which it is being considered.
- (f) ELEMENT IN CLAIM FOR A COMBINATION.—An element in a claim for a combination may be expressed as a means or step for performing a specified function without the recital of structure, material, or acts in support thereof, and such claim shall be construed to cover the corresponding structure, material, or acts described in the specification and equivalents thereof.
(Amended July 24, 1965, Public Law 89-83, sec. 9, 79 Stat. 261; Nov. 14, 1975, Public Law 94-131, sec. 7, 89 Stat. 691; amended Sept. 16, 2011, Public Law 112-29, sec. 4(c), 125 Stat. 284, effective Sept. 16, 2012.)