Trademark Manual of Examining Procedure (TMEP)
Chapter 1300: Service Marks, Collective Marks, and Certification Marks

October 2015 Edition of the TMEP
TMEP Chapter Index

Chapter 1300: Service Marks, Collective Marks, and Certification Marks

1301: Service Marks

1301.01: What Is a Service?

1301.01(a): Criteria for Determining What Constitutes a Service

1301.01(a)(i): Performance of a Real Activity

1301.01(a)(ii): For the Benefit of Others

1301.01(a)(iii): Sufficiently Distinct from Activities Involved in Provision of Goods or Performance of Other Services

1301.01(b): Whether Particular Activities Constitute "Services"

1301.01(b)(i): Contests and Promotional Activities

1301.01(b)(ii): Warranty or Guarantee of Repair

1301.01(b)(iii): Publishing One’s Own Periodical

1301.01(b)(iv): Soliciting Investors

1301.01(b)(v): Informational Services Ancillary to the Sale of Goods

1301.01(b)(vi): Clinical Trials

1301.02: What Is a Service Mark?

1301.02(a): Matter that Does Not Function as a Service Mark

1301.02(b): Names of Characters or Personal Names as Service Marks

1301.02(c): Three-Dimensional Service Marks

1301.02(d): Titles of Radio and Television Programs

1301.02(e): Process, System, or Method

1301.02(f): Computer Software

1301.03: Use of Service Mark in Commerce

1301.03(a): Use of Service Mark in Advertising to Identify Services

1301.03(b): Rendering of Service in Commerce Regulable by Congress

1301.04: Specimens of Use for Service Marks

1301.04(a): Whether the Specimen Shows the Mark as Actually Used by the Applicant in Commerce in the Sale or Advertising of the Services

1301.04(b): Whether the Identified Services Are Registrable Services

1301.04(c): Whether the Specimen Shows Use in Connection with All Classes in a Multiple-Class Application

1301.04(d): Whether the Mark Is Used in Connection With the Identified Services

1301.04(e): Whether the Mark Functions as a Service Mark

1301.04(f): Elements of an Acceptable Service-Mark Specimen

1301.04(f)(i): Show the Mark

1301.04(f)(ii): Associate the Mark with the Identified Services

1301.04(g): Grounds for Refusal

1301.04(g)(i): Failure to Show the Mark Used in Commerce

1301.04(g)(ii): Failure to Show the Mark Functioning as a Service Mark

1301.04(h): Considerations and Common Issues when Examining Certain Specimens

1301.04(h)(i): Letterhead

1301.04(h)(ii): Specimens for Entertainment Services

1301.04(h)(iii): Specimens for Technology-Related Services

1301.04(h)(iv): Common Forms of Specimens for Modern Technology-Related Services

1301.04(h)(iv)(A): Sign-In Screens

1301.04(h)(iv)(B): Title or Launch Screens

1301.04(h)(iv)(C): Webpages

1301.04(h)(iv)(D): Software Applications ("Apps")

1301.04(i): Examples of Acceptable Service-Mark Specimens

1301.04(j): Examples of Unacceptable Service-Mark Specimens

1301.05: Identification and Classification of Services

1302: Collective Marks Generally

1302.01: Brief History of Collective Marks

1303: Collective Trademarks and Collective Service Marks Generally

1303.01: Application Requirements for a Collective Trademark or Collective Service Mark

1303.01(a): Filing Basis

1303.01(a)(i): Use in Commerce – §1(a)

1303.01(a)(i)(A): Manner/Method of Control

1303.01(a)(i)(B): Dates of Use

1303.01(a)(i)(C): Specimens

1303.01(a)(ii): Intent to Use – §1(b)

1303.01(a)(iii): Foreign Priority – §44(d)

1303.01(a)(iv): Foreign Registration – §44(e)

1303.01(a)(iv)(A): Scope of Foreign Registration

1303.01(a)(v): Extension of Protection of International Registration – §66(a)

1303.01(a)(vi): Multiple Bases, Amending/Deleting the Basis, Review of Basis Prior to Publication/Issue

1303.01(b): Verification of Certain Statements

1303.01(b)(i): Statements Required in Verification of Application for Registration - §1 or §44 Application

1303.01(b)(ii): Statements Required in Verification of Application for Registration - §66(a) Application

1303.02: Examination of Collective Trademark and Collective Service Mark Applications

1303.02(a): Ownership Considerations

1303.02(b): Likelihood of Confusion

1304: Collective Membership Marks

1304.01: Collective Membership Marks Generally

1304.02: Application Requirements for Collective Membership Marks

1304.02(a): Filing Basis

1304.02(a)(i): Use in Commerce – §1(a)

1304.02(a)(i)(A): Manner/Method of Control

1304.02(a)(i)(B): Dates of Use

1304.02(a)(i)(C): Specimens

1304.02(a)(ii): Intent to Use – §1(b)

1304.02(a)(iii): Foreign Priority – §44(d)

1304.02(a)(iv): Foreign Registration – §44(e)

1304.02(a)(iv)(A): Scope of Foreign Registration

1304.02(a)(v): Extension of Protection of International Registration – §66(a)

1304.02(a)(vi): Multiple Bases, Amending/Deleting the Basis, Review of Basis Prior to Publication/Issue

1304.02(b): Verification of Certain Statements

1304.02(b)(i): Statements Required in Verification of Application for Registration - §1 or §44 Application

1304.02(b)(ii): Statements Required in Verification of Application for Registration - §66(a) Application

1304.02(c): Identification of Nature of Collective Membership Organization

1304.02(d): Classification

1304.03: Examination of Collective Membership Mark Applications

1304.03(a): Ownership Considerations

1304.03(b): Specimen Refusals Specific to Collective Membership Marks

1304.03(b)(i): Matter that Does Not Function as a Membership Mark

1304.03(b)(ii): Degree or Title Designations

1304.03(c): Likelihood of Confusion

1305: Trademarks and Service Marks Used by Collective Organizations

1306: Certification Marks

1306.01: Types of Certification Marks

1306.01(a): Use Is by Person Other than Owner of Certification Mark

1306.01(b): Purpose Is to Certify, Not to Indicate Source

1306.01(c): Identifying Certification Mark Applications

1306.02: Application Requirements for a Certification Mark

1306.02(a): Filing Basis

1306.02(a)(i): Use in Commerce – §1(a)

1306.02(a)(i)(A): Dates of Use

1306.02(a)(i)(B): Specimens

1306.02(a)(ii): Intent to Use – §1(b)

1306.02(a)(iii): Foreign Priority – §44(d)

1306.02(a)(iv): Foreign Registration – §44(e)

1306.02(a)(iv)(A): Scope of Foreign Registration

1306.02(a)(v): Extension of Protection of International Registration – §66(a)

1306.02(a)(vi): Multiple Bases, Amending/Deleting the Basis, Review of Basis Prior to Publication/Issue

1306.02(b): Verification of Certain Statements

1306.02(b)(i): Statements Required in Verification of Application for Registration - §1 or §44 Application

1306.02(b)(ii): Statements Required in Verification of Application for Registration - §66(a) Application

1306.02(c): Identification of Goods and Services of the Authorized Users

1306.02(d): Classification

1306.03: Special Elements of Certification Mark Applications

1306.03(a): Certification Statement

1306.03(b): Certification Standards – Required for §1(a) Applications and Allegations of Use Only

1306.03(c): Statement that Applicant Is Not Engaged in (or Will not Engage in) Production or Marketing of the Goods/Services

1306.04: Examination of Certification Mark Applications

1306.04(a): Compare the Mark on the Drawing to the Specimen for §1(a)

1306.04(b): Ownership

1306.04(b)(i): Exercise of Control

1306.04(b)(ii): Distinguishing Certification Mark Use from Related-Company Use of Trademark or Service Mark

1306.04(b)(iii): Patent Licenses

1306.04(c): Characteristics of Certification Marks – Specimen Shows Mark Functions as a Certification Mark

1306.04(d): Specimen Refusals Specific to Certification Marks

1306.04(d)(i): Whether Certification Mark and Trademark or Service Mark Appear on Specimen Together

1306.04(d)(ii): Specimen Shows Use as Title or Degree for Certification Mark Certifying that Labor Was Performed by Specific Group or Individual

1306.04(e): Relationship of §14 (Cancellation)

1306.04(f): Same Mark Not Registrable as Certification Mark and as Any Other Type of Mark

1306.04(f)(i): SERVICE MARKS, COLLECTIVE MARKS, AND CERTIFICATION MARKS Cancellation of Applicant’s Prior Registration Required by Change from Certification Mark Use to Trademark or Service Mark Use, or Vice Versa

1306.05: Geographic Certification Marks

1306.05(a): Geographic Certification Marks – Generally

1306.05(b): Additional Considerations in Geographic Certification Mark Applications

1306.05(b)(i): Certification Statement

1306.05(b)(ii): Authority to Control a Geographic Certification Mark

1306.05(b)(iii): Specimens

1306.05(c): Mark Must Serve to Certify Geographic Origin

1306.05(d): Section 2(e)(2) Does Not Apply to Geographic Certification Marks

1306.05(e): Geographically Deceptive Marks Not Registrable as Geographic Certification Marks

1306.05(f): Geographic Designations that Do Not Certify Regional Origin

1306.05(g): Likelihood-of-Confusion Search and Analysis

1306.05(g)(i): Considerations When the Proposed Mark Is a Geographic Certification Mark

1306.05(g)(ii): Considerations When the Proposed Mark Contains a Geographic Designation but Is Not a Geographic Certification Mark

1306.05(h): American Viticultural Areas

1306.05(i): Geographic Certification Marks Containing §2(b) Matter

1306.05(j): Examples of Geographic Certification Marks

1306.06: Uncertainty Regarding Type of Mark

1306.06(a): Distinction Between Certification Mark and Collective Mark

1306.06(b): Amendment to Different Type of Mark

1306.06(c): Registration as Correct Type of Mark