Trademark Manual of Examining Procedure (TMEP)
Chapter 1200: Substantive Examination of Applications

October 2015 Edition of the TMEP
TMEP Chapter Index

Chapter 1200: Substantive Examination of Applications

1201: Ownership of Mark

1201.01: Claim of Ownership May Be Based on Use By Related Companies

1201.02: Identifying the Applicant in the Application

1201.02(a): Identifying the Applicant Properly

1201.02(b): Application Void if Wrong Party Identified as the Applicant

1201.02(c): Correcting Errors in How the Applicant Is Identified

1201.02(d): Operating Divisions

1201.02(e): Changes in Ownership After Application Is Filed

1201.03: Use by Related Companies

1201.03(a): No Explanation of Use of Mark by Related Companies or Applicant’s Control Over Use of Mark by Related Companies Required

1201.03(b): Wholly Owned Related Companies

1201.03(c): Common Stockholders, Directors, or Officers

1201.03(d): Sister Corporations

1201.03(e): License and Franchise Situations

1201.04: Inquiry Regarding Parties Named on Specimens or Elsewhere in Record

1201.05: Acceptable Claim of Ownership Based on Applicant’s Own Use

1201.06: Special Situations Pertaining to Ownership

1201.06(a): Applicant Is Merely Distributor or Importer

1201.06(b): Goods Manufactured in a Country Other than Where Applicant Is Located

1201.07: Related Companies and Likelihood of Confusion

1201.07(a): "Single Source" – "Unity of Control"

1201.07(b): Appropriate Action with Respect to Assertion of Unity of Control

1201.07(b)(i): When Either Applicant or Registrant Owns All of the Other Entity

1201.07(b)(ii): Joint Ownership or Ownership of Substantially All of the Other Entity

1201.07(b)(iii): When the Record Does Not Support a Presumption of Unity of Control

1201.07(b)(iv): When the Record Contradicts an Assertion of Unity of Control

1202: Use of Subject Matter as Trademark

1202.01: Refusal of Matter Used Solely as a Trade Name

1202.02: Registration of Trade Dress

1202.02(a): Functionality of Trade Dress

1202.02(a)(i): Statutory Basis for Functionality Refusal

1202.02(a)(ii): Purpose of Functionality Doctrine

1202.02(a)(iii): Background and Definitions

1202.02(a)(iii)(A): Functionality

1202.02(a)(iii)(B): "De Jure" and "De Facto" Functionality

1202.02(a)(iv): Burden of Proof in Functionality Determinations

1202.02(a)(v): Evidence and Considerations Regarding Functionality Determinations

1202.02(a)(v)(A): Utility Patents and Design Patents

1202.02(a)(v)(B): Advertising, Promotional, or Explanatory Material in Functionality Determinations

1202.02(a)(v)(C): Availability of Alternative Designs in Functionality Determinations

1202.02(a)(v)(D): Ease or Economy of Manufacture in Functionality Determinations

1202.02(a)(vi): Aesthetic Functionality

1202.02(a)(vii): Functionality and Service Marks

1202.02(a)(viii): Functionality and Non-Traditional Marks

1202.02(b): Distinctiveness of Trade Dress

1202.02(b)(i): Distinctiveness and Product Design Trade Dress

1202.02(b)(ii): Distinctiveness and Product Packaging Trade Dress

1202.02(c): Drawings, Descriptions, and Disclaimers in Trade Dress Applications

1202.02(c)(i): Drawings of Trade Dress Marks

1202.02(c)(i)(A): Functional Matter

1202.02(c)(i)(B): Nondistinctive Matter

1202.02(c)(i)(C): Drawings in §44 and §66(a) Applications

1202.02(c)(ii): Descriptions of Trade Dress Marks Required

1202.02(c)(iii): Disclaimers of Unregistrable Elements of Trade Dress Marks

1202.02(c)(iii)(A): Functional Matter

1202.02(c)(iii)(B): Nondistinctive Matter

1202.02(c)(iv): Three-Dimensional Marks

1202.02(d): Trade Dress in §1(b) Applications

1202.02(e): Trade Dress in §44 and §66(a) Applications

1202.02(f): Identification of Goods/Services in Trade Dress Applications

1202.02(f)(i): Product Design

1202.02(f)(ii): Product Packaging

1202.03: Refusal on Basis of Ornamentation

1202.03(a): Commercial Impression

1202.03(b): Practices of the Trade

1202.03(c): "Secondary Source"

1202.03(d): Evidence of Distinctiveness

1202.03(e): Ornamentation with Respect to §1(b), §44, and §66(a) Applications

1202.03(f): Ornamentation: Case References

1202.03(f)(i): Slogans or Words Used on the Goods

1202.03(f)(ii): Designs Used on the Goods

1202.03(f)(iii): Trade Dress on the Containers for the Goods

1202.03(g): Ornamentation Cases and Acquired Distinctiveness

1202.04: Informational Matter

1202.05: Color as a Mark

1202.05(a): Color Marks Never Inherently Distinctive

1202.05(b): Functional Color Marks Not Registrable

1202.05(c): Color as a Separable Element

1202.05(d): Drawings of Color Marks Required

1202.05(d)(i): Drawings of Color Marks in Trademark Applications

1202.05(d)(ii): Drawings of Color Marks in Service Mark Applications

1202.05(d)(iii): Amendment of Drawings of Color Marks

1202.05(d)(iv): Drawings for Marks Including Both Color and Words or Design

1202.05(e): Written Descriptions of Color Marks

1202.05(f): Specimens for Color Marks

1202.05(g): Special Considerations for Service Mark Applications

1202.05(h): Color Marks in §1(b) Applications

1202.05(i): Color Marks in §44 or §66(a) Applications

1202.06: Goods in Trade

1202.06(a): Goods Must Have Utility to Others

1202.06(b): Registration Must Be Refused if Trademark Not Used on Goods in Trade

1202.06(c): Goods in Trade in §1(b), §44, and §66(a) Applications

1202.07: Marks That Identify Columns or Sections of Publications

1202.07(a): Marks That Identify Columns or Sections of Printed Publications

1202.07(a)(i): Syndicated Columns and Sections

1202.07(a)(ii): Non-Syndicated Columns and Sections

1202.07(a)(iii): Marks That Identify Columns and Sections of Printed Publications in §1(b), §44, and §66(a) Applications

1202.07(b): Marks That Identify Columns and Sections of Online Publications

1202.08: Title of a Single Creative Work

1202.08(a): What Constitutes a Single Creative Work

1202.08(b): What Does Not Constitute a Single Creative Work

1202.08(c): Complete Title of the Work – Evidence of a Series

1202.08(d): Portion of a Title of the Work

1202.08(d)(i): Mark Must Create a Separate Commercial Impression

1202.08(d)(ii): Establishing a Series When the Mark is a Portion of the Title

1202.08(d)(iii): Evidence that the Portion of the Title is Promoted or Recognized as a Mark

1202.08(e): Identification of Goods/Services

1202.08(f): Title of a Single Work in §1(b), §44, and §66(a) Applications

1202.09: Names of Artists and Authors

1202.09(a): Names and Pseudonyms of Authors and Performing Artists

1202.09(a)(i): Author or Performer’s Name – Evidence of a Series

1202.09(a)(ii): Evidence that the Name is a Source Identifier

1202.09(a)(ii)(A): Promotion and Recognition of the Name

1202.09(a)(ii)(B): Control over the Nature and Quality of the Goods

1202.09(a)(iii): Names of Authors and Performing Artists in §1(b), §44, and §66(a) Applications

1202.09(b): Names of Artists Used on Original Works of Art

1202.10: Names and Designs of Characters in Creative Works

1202.10(a): Names and Designs of Characters in Creative Works in §1(b), §44, or §66(a) Applications

1202.11: Background Designs and Shapes

1202.12: Varietal and Cultivar Names (Examination of Applications for Seeds and Plants)

1202.13: Scent, Fragrance, or Flavor

1202.14: Holograms

1202.15: Sound Marks

1202.16: Model or Grade Designations

1202.16(a): Examination of Marks with Model and Grade Designations

1202.16(b): Identifying Model and Grade Designations in Marks

1202.16(b)(i): Model Designations

1202.16(b)(i)(A): Stylization of Display

1202.16(b)(i)(B): Size of Proposed Mark

1202.16(b)(i)(C): Physical Location

1202.16(b)(ii): Grade Designations

1202.16(c): Procedures for Handling Marks with Model and Grade Designations

1202.16(c)(i): Evidentiary Considerations when Issuing Model or Grade Designation Refusals

1202.16(c)(i)(A): Model Designations

1202.16(c)(i)(B): Grade Designations

1202.16(c)(ii): Entire Mark Consists of Model or Grade Designation in §1(a) Applications

1202.16(c)(iii): Composite Mark with Model or Grade Designation in §1(a) Applications

1202.16(c)(iii)(A): Model or Grade Designations with Arbitrary and/or Suggestive Matter

1202.16(c)(iii)(B): Model or Grade Designations with Descriptive, Generic, and/or Informational Matter

1202.16(c)(iv): Drawing and Specimen Agreement Issues in §1(a) Applications

1202.16(c)(v): Model or Grade Designation in §1(b), §44, or §66(a) Applications

1202.16(c)(v)(A): Model Designations

1202.16(c)(v)(B): Grade Designations

1202.17: Universal Symbols in Marks

1202.17(a): Relevance of Universal Symbols to Examination

1202.17(b): Reviewing Marks Containing Symbols

1202.17(b)(i): Identifying Universal Symbols in Marks

1202.17(b)(ii): Marks Displaying an Unusual Depiction of a Universal Symbol

1202.17(b)(iii): Marks Displaying an Accurate Depiction of a Universal Symbol

1202.17(c): Failure to Function

1202.17(c)(i): Determining Whether a Universal Symbol Functions as a Source Indicator

1202.17(c)(i)(A): Informational Universal Symbols

1202.17(c)(i)(B): Ornamental Universal Symbols

1202.17(c)(ii): Mark Consists Entirely of a Universal Symbol that Fails to Function

1202.17(c)(ii)(A): Applications Based on Sections 1(b), 44, or 66(a)

1202.17(c)(ii)(B): Applicant’s Response to Refusal

1202.17(c)(iii): Mark Includes a Universal Symbol that Fails to Function

1202.17(d): Other Relevant Refusals

1202.17(d)(i): Merely Descriptive

1202.17(d)(ii): Deceptive or Deceptively Misdescriptive

1202.17(e): Universal Symbols Commonly Appearing in Marks

1202.17(e)(i): Awareness Ribbon Symbols

1202.17(e)(ii): Recycling Symbol

1202.17(e)(iii): Caduceus, Rod of Asclepius, and Prescription Symbol

1202.17(e)(iv): Religious Symbols

1202.17(e)(v): Currency Symbols

1202.17(e)(vi): Universal Prohibition Symbol

1202.18: Hashtag Marks

1202.19: Repeating-Pattern Marks

1202.19(a): Drawing Requirements for Repeating-Pattern Marks

1202.19(a)(i): Mark Used on a Single Item

1202.19(a)(ii): Mark Used in a Similar Manner on Similar Items

1202.19(a)(iii): Mark Used in Various Ways or on Various Items Swatch-Type Drawings

1202.19(a)(iv): Drawings for Service Marks

1202.19(b): Mark Descriptions for Repeating-Pattern Marks

1202.19(c): Material Alteration of Repeating-Pattern Marks

1202.19(c)(i): Amending the Drawing to Depict a Different Object

1202.19(c)(ii): Amending a Swatch-Type Drawing to Show an Object and Vice Versa

1202.19(c)(iii): Amending the Drawing to Depict a Different Placement of the Repeating Pattern

1202.19(c)(iv): Amending Descriptions of Repeating-Pattern Marks

1202.19(c)(v): Amendments in Applications Based on Section 44 or Section 66(a)

1202.19(d): Specimens for Repeating-Pattern Marks

1202.19(e): Failure-to-Function Refusal – Mark Not Inherently Distinctive

1202.19(e)(i): Inherent Distinctiveness Determination

1202.19(e)(i)(A): Common or Widely Used Pattern

1202.19(e)(i)(B): Pattern Creates a Distinct Commercial Impression Apart from Other Matter

1202.19(e)(i)(C): Nature of Elements in the Repeating Pattern

1202.19(e)(i)(D): Industry Practice

1202.19(e)(i)(E): Type of Product

1202.19(e)(ii): Statutory Basis for Refusal

1202.19(e)(iii): Response Options

1202.19(f): Failure-to-Function Refusal – Inconsistent Goods or Services

1202.19(f)(i): Statutory Basis for Refusal

1202.19(f)(ii): Response Options

1202.19(g): Refusal – Application Seeks Registration of More than One Mark

1202.19(g)(i): Statutory Basis for Refusal

1202.19(g)(ii): Response Options

1202.19(h): Refusals in Applications Based on Section 1(b), Section 44, or Section 66(a)

1202.19(i): Functional Repeating Patterns

1202.19(j): Random Patterns

1202.19(k): Examples of Repeating-Pattern Marks

1203: Refusal on Basis of Immoral or Scandalous Matter; Deceptive Matter; Matter which May Disparage, Falsely Suggest a Connection, or Bring into Contempt or Disrepute

1203.01: Immoral or Scandalous Matter

1203.02: Deceptive Matter

1203.02(a): Types of Deceptive Marks

1203.02(b): Elements of a §2(a) Deceptiveness Refusal

1203.02(c): Distinction between Marks Comprising Deceptive Matter (§2(a)) and Deceptively Misdescriptive Marks (§2(e)(1))

1203.02(d): Determining Materiality

1203.02(d)(i): Objective Criteria

1203.02(d)(ii): Mere Personal Preference

1203.02(e): Procedures for Issuing §2(a) Deceptive Refusals

1203.02(e)(i): When the Mark is Clearly Misdescriptive

1203.02(e)(ii): When It is Not Clear Whether the Mark is Misdescriptive

1203.02(f): Responding to a §2(a) Deceptiveness Refusal

1203.02(f)(i): Amending the Identification of Goods or Services

1203.02(f)(ii): Other Arguments

1203.02(g): Deceptive Matter: Case References

1203.03: Matter That May Disparage, Falsely Suggest a Connection, or Bring into Contempt or Disrepute

1203.03(a): Definitions

1203.03(a)(i): "Persons"

1203.03(a)(ii): "Institutions"

1203.03(a)(iii): "National Symbols"

1203.03(b): Disparagement, Bringing into Contempt, and Bringing into Disrepute

1203.03(b)(i): Elements of a §2(a) Disparagement Refusal

1203.03(b)(ii): Disparagement, Bringing into Contempt, and Bringing into Disrepute: Case References

1203.03(c): False Suggestion of a Connection

1203.03(c)(i): Elements of a §2(a) False Suggestion of a Connection Refusal

1203.03(c)(ii): Government Agencies and Instrumentalities

1203.03(c)(iii): False Suggestion of a Connection: Case References

1204: Refusal on Basis of Flag, Coat of Arms, or Other Insignia of United States, State or Municipality, or Foreign Nation

1204.01: Flags and Simulations of Flags

1204.01(a): Flags and Simulations of Flags are Refused

1204.01(b): Stylized Flag Designs are not Refused under §2(b)

1204.01(c): Case Law Interpreting "Simulation of Flag"

1204.01(d): Description of the Mark

1204.01(e): Flags Not Presently Used as National Flags

1204.02: Government Insignia

1204.02(a): Designs that are Insignia Under §2(b) Must Be Refused

1204.02(b): Examples of Insignia That Should Be Refused

1204.02(c): Examples of Designs That Should Not Be Refused

1204.02(d): Case Law Interpreting Insignia Under §2(b)

1204.03: Other Refusals May be Appropriate

1204.04: Responding to §2(b) Refusal

1204.04(a): Absolute Bar to Registration

1204.04(b): Deletion of §2(b) Matter

1204.04(b)(i): Examples of Matter That May and May Not Be Deleted

1204.05: Resources

1205: Refusal on Basis of Matter Protected by Statute or Convention

1205.01: Statutory Protection

1205.01(a): Examination Procedures for Marks Comprising a Red Crystal or Red Crescent on a White Background, or the Phrases "Red Crescent" or "Third Protocol Emblem"

1205.01(a)(i): First Use After December 8, 2005

1205.01(a)(ii): First Use On or Before December 8, 2005 – Grandfather Clause

1205.01(a)(iii): Date of First Use Not Specified

1205.01(a)(iv): Applicable Refusals

1205.01(a)(v): Amendments to Disclaim, Delete, or Amend the Unregistrable Symbol or Designation

1205.01(a)(vi): Parties Authorized to use the Red Crescent and Third Protocol Emblem

1205.01(b): Examination Procedures for Marks Comprising Matter Related to the United States Olympic Committee or the Olympics

1205.01(b)(i): Nature of the Mark

1205.01(b)(ii): Issuing Other Substantive Refusals

1205.01(b)(iii): Amendments to Disclaim, Delete, or Amend the Unregistrable Wording or Symbol

1205.01(b)(iv): Consent to Register

1205.01(b)(v): First Use On or After September 21, 1950

1205.01(b)(vi): First Use Before September 21, 1950 – Grandfather Clause

1205.01(b)(vii): Date of First Use Not Specified

1205.01(b)(viii): Geographic-Reference Exception

1205.01(c): Examination Procedures for Marks Containing Greek Red Cross or the Phrases "Red Cross" or "Geneva Cross"

1205.01(c)(i): Date of First Use is Before or After June 25, 1948

1205.01(c)(ii): Date of First Use Not Specified

1205.01(c)(iii): Applicable Refusals

1205.01(c)(iv): Amendments to Disclaim, Delete, or Amend the Unregistrable Symbol or Designation

1205.01(d): Examination Procedures for Marks Containing the Swiss Confederation Coat of Arms or Flag

1205.01(d)(i): Refusal Under Sections 1 and 45: Swiss Coat of Arms Not in Lawful Use

1205.01(d)(i)(A): When a Refusal Under Sections 1 and 45 Must Be Issued

1205.01(d)(i)(B): When an Advisory Should Be Provided

1205.01(d)(i)(C): When a Refusal Under Sections 1 and 45 Should Not Be Issued

1205.01(d)(i)(D): Applicant’s Response to Refusal

1205.01(d)(i)(E): Refusals Based on Extrinsic Evidence

1205.01(d)(ii): Refusal Under Section 2(b): Swiss Flag or Swiss Coat of Arms

1205.01(d)(ii)(A): When a Refusal Under Section 2(b) Must Be Issued

1205.01(d)(ii)(B): When an Advisory Should Be Provided

1205.01(d)(ii)(C): When a Refusal Under Section 2(b) Should Not Be Issued

1205.01(d)(ii)(D): Applicant’s Response to Refusal

1205.01(d)(iii): Other Refusals

1205.01(d)(iv): Examples

1205.02: Article 6ter of the Paris Convention

1205.03: Native American Tribal Insignia

1206: Refusal on Basis of Name, Portrait, or Signature of Particular Living Individual or Deceased U.S. President Without Consent

1206.01: Name, Portrait, or Signature of Particular Living Individual

1206.02: Connection With Goods or Services

1206.03: When Inquiry is Required

1206.04: Consent of Individual or President’s Widow

1206.04(a): Consent Statement Must Be Written Consent to Registration

1206.04(b): Consent May Be Presumed From Signature of Application

1206.04(c): New Consent Not Required if Consent is of Record in Valid Registration Owned by Applicant

1206.04(d): Implicit Consent

1206.05: Names and Likenesses That Do Not Identify a Particular Living Individual

1207: Refusal on Basis of Likelihood of Confusion, Mistake, or Deception

1207.01: Likelihood of Confusion

1207.01(a): Relatedness of the Goods or Services

1207.01(a)(i): Goods or Services Need Not Be Identical

1207.01(a)(ii): Establishing Relatedness of Goods to Services

1207.01(a)(ii)(A): Food and Beverage Products Versus Restaurant Services

1207.01(a)(iii): Reliance on Identification of Goods/Services in Registration and Application

1207.01(a)(iv): No "Per Se" Rule

1207.01(a)(v): Expansion-of-Trade Doctrine

1207.01(a)(vi): Evidence Showing Relatedness of Goods or Services

1207.01(b): Similarity of the Marks

1207.01(b)(i): Word Marks

1207.01(b)(ii): Similarity In Appearance

1207.01(b)(iii): Comparing Marks That Contain Additional Matter

1207.01(b)(iv): Similarity in Sound – Phonetic Equivalents

1207.01(b)(v): Similarity in Meaning

1207.01(b)(vi): Doctrine of Foreign Equivalents

1207.01(b)(vi)(A): Background

1207.01(b)(vi)(B): When an Ordinary American Purchaser Would "Stop and Translate"

1207.01(b)(vi)(C): Likelihood of Confusion Factors Still Apply When Assessing Whether Marks are Confusingly Similar

1207.01(b)(vii): Transposition of Terms

1207.01(b)(viii): Marks Consisting of Multiple Words

1207.01(b)(ix): Weak or Descriptive Marks

1207.01(b)(x): Parody Marks

1207.01(b)(xi): Color Marks

1207.01(c): Design Marks

1207.01(c)(i): Legal Equivalents – Comparison of Words and Their Equivalent Designs

1207.01(c)(ii): Composite Marks Consisting of Both Words and Designs

1207.01(c)(iii): Comparison of Standard Character Marks and Special Form Marks

1207.01(c)(iv): Matter Depicted in Broken Lines

1207.01(d): Miscellaneous Considerations

1207.01(d)(i): Doubt Resolved in Favor of Registrant

1207.01(d)(ii): Absence of Actual Confusion

1207.01(d)(iii): Third-Party Registrations and Evidence of Third-Party Use

1207.01(d)(iv): Collateral Attack on Registration Improper in Ex Parte Proceeding

1207.01(d)(v): Classification of Goods/Services

1207.01(d)(vi): Prior Decisions of Examining Attorneys

1207.01(d)(vii): Sophisticated Purchasers

1207.01(d)(viii): Consent Agreements

1207.01(d)(ix): Fame of the Prior Registered Mark

1207.01(d)(x): Conflicting Marks Owned by Different Parties

1207.01(d)(xi): Family of Marks

1207.01(d)(xii): Pharmaceuticals or Medicinal Products

1207.02: Marks That Are Likely to Deceive

1207.03: Marks Previously Used in United States but Not Registered

1207.04: Concurrent Use Registration

1207.04(a): Concurrent Use – In General

1207.04(b): Filing Basis of Application Seeking Concurrent Use Registration

1207.04(c): Criteria for Requesting Concurrent Use Registration

1207.04(d): Requirements for All Concurrent Use Applications

1207.04(d)(i): Concurrent Use Application for a Trademark or Service Mark

1207.04(d)(ii): Concurrent Use Application for a Collective or Certification Mark

1207.04(e): Applications Subject to Concurrent Use Proceeding Before the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board

1207.04(e)(i): Preparing the Record for Publication

1207.04(f): Application for Concurrent Use Registration Pursuant to Court Decree

1207.04(f)(i): Preparing the Record for Publication

1207.04(g): Application for Concurrent Use Registration Based on Final Board Decision in Prior Concurrent Use Proceeding

1207.04(g)(i): Preparing the Record for Publication

1208: Conflicting Marks in Pending Applications

1208.01: Priority for Publication or Issue Based on Effective Filing Date

1208.01(a): What Constitutes Conflict Between Pending Applications

1208.01(b): What Constitutes Effective Filing Date

1208.01(c): Change in Effective Filing Date During Examination

1208.01(d): Examination of Conflicting Marks After Reinstatement or Revival

1208.02: Conflicting Applications Examination Procedure

1208.02(a): Examination of Application with Earliest Effective Filing Date

1208.02(b): Action on Later-Filed Application: Giving Notice of the Earlier Application or Applications

1208.02(c): Suspension of Later-Filed Application

1208.02(d): Action on Later-Filed Application upon Disposition of the Earlier Application or Applications

1208.02(e): Applicant’s Argument on Issues of Conflict

1208.02(f): Conflicting Mark Mistakenly Published or Approved for Issuance on the Supplemental Register

1208.03: Procedure Relating to Possibility of Interference

1208.03(a): Procedures on Request for Interference

1208.03(b): Decision on Request for Interference

1208.03(c): Procedure When Interference Is to be Declared

1209: Refusal on Basis of Descriptiveness

1209.01: Distinctiveness/Descriptiveness Continuum

1209.01(a): Fanciful, Arbitrary, and Suggestive Marks

1209.01(b): Merely Descriptive Marks

1209.01(c): Generic Terms

1209.01(c)(i): Test

1209.01(c)(ii): Terminology

1209.01(c)(iii): Generic Matter: Case References

1209.02: Procedure for Descriptiveness and/or Genericness Refusal

1209.02(a): Descriptive Marks – Advisory Statement That Mark Appears to Be Generic

1209.02(a)(i): Amendment to Supplemental Register in Response to Office Action

1209.02(a)(ii): Assertion of §2(f) in Response to Office Action

1209.02(b): Descriptive and Possibly Generic Marks – Assertion of §2(f) in Application

1209.03: Considerations Relevant to Determination of Descriptiveness or Genericness

1209.03(a): Third-Party Registrations

1209.03(b): No Dictionary Listing

1209.03(c): First or Only User

1209.03(d): Combined Terms

1209.03(e): More Than One Meaning

1209.03(f): Picture or Illustration

1209.03(g): Foreign Equivalents

1209.03(h): Acronyms

1209.03(i): Intended Users

1209.03(j): Phonetic Equivalent

1209.03(k): Laudatory Terms

1209.03(l): Telephone Numbers

1209.03(m): Domain Names

1209.03(n): "America" or "American"

1209.03(o): "National," "International," "Global," and "Worldwide"

1209.03(p): Function or Purpose

1209.03(q): Source or Provider of Goods or Services

1209.03(r): Retail Store and Distributorship Services

1209.03(s): Slogans

1209.03(t): Repetition of Descriptive or Generic Term

1209.03(u): Punctuation

1209.04: Deceptively Misdescriptive Marks

1210: Refusal on Basis of Geographic Significance

1210.01: Elements

1210.01(a): Geographically Descriptive Marks – Test

1210.01(b): Geographically Deceptively Misdescriptive Marks – Test

1210.01(c): Geographically Deceptive Marks – Test

1210.02: Primarily Geographic Significance

1210.02(a): Geographic Locations

1210.02(b): Primary Significance

1210.02(b)(i): Other Meanings

1210.02(b)(i)(A): Surname Significance

1210.02(b)(ii): More Than One Geographic Location With Same Name

1210.02(b)(iii): Non-Geographic Characteristics of Goods or Services

1210.02(b)(iv): "America" or "American" and Similar Terms in Marks

1210.02(c): Geographic Terms Combined With Additional Matter

1210.02(c)(i): Two Geographic Terms Combined

1210.02(c)(ii): Geographic Terms Combined With Descriptive or Generic Matter

1210.02(c)(iii): Arbitrary, Fanciful, or Suggestive Composites

1210.03: Geographic Origin of the Goods or Services

1210.04: Goods/Place or Services/Place Association

1210.04(a): Establishing Goods/Place Association

1210.04(b): Establishing Services/Place Association

1210.04(c): Obscure or Remote Geographic Marks

1210.04(d): Arbitrary Use of Geographic Terms

1210.05: Geographically Deceptive Marks

1210.05(a): Basis for Refusal

1210.05(b): Elements of a §2(e)(3) Refusal

1210.05(c): Determining Materiality

1210.05(c)(i): Materiality In Cases Involving Goods

1210.05(c)(ii): Materiality In Cases Involving Services

1210.05(d): Procedures for Issuing Geographically Deceptive Refusals

1210.05(d)(i): Neither Applicant Nor Goods/Services Come from the Place Named

1210.05(d)(ii): It is Not Clear Whether the Goods/Services Originate From the Place Named

1210.05(e): Geographically Deceptive Matter: Case References

1210.06: Procedure for Examining Geographic Composite Marks

1210.06(a): Marks That Include Primarily Geographically Descriptive Terms Combined With Additional Matter

1210.06(b): Marks That Include Primarily Geographically Deceptively Misdescriptive and Deceptive Terms Combined With Additional Matter

1210.07: Supplemental Register and §2(f)

1210.07(a): Registrability of Geographic Terms on the Supplemental Register

1210.07(b): Registrability of Geographic Terms under §2(f)

1210.08: Geographical Indications Used on Wines and Spirits

1210.08(a): Geographical Indications Used on Wines and Spirits That Do Not Originate in the Named Place

1210.08(b): Geographical Indications Used on Wines and Spirits That Originate in the Named Place

1210.08(c): Geographical Indications That Are Generic for Wines and Spirits

1210.09: Geographic Certification Marks

1210.10: Doctrine of Foreign Equivalents

1211: Refusal on Basis of Surname

1211.01: "Primarily Merely a Surname"

1211.01(a): Non-Surname Significance

1211.01(a)(i): Ordinary Language Meaning

1211.01(a)(ii): Phonetic Equivalent of Term with Ordinary Language Meaning

1211.01(a)(iii): Geographical Significance

1211.01(a)(iv): Historical Place or Person

1211.01(a)(v): Rare Surnames

1211.01(a)(vi): "Look and Feel" of a Surname

1211.01(a)(vii): Doctrine of Foreign Equivalents

1211.01(b): Surname Combined with Additional Matter

1211.01(b)(i): Double Surnames

1211.01(b)(ii): Stylization or Design Elements

1211.01(b)(iii): Surname Combined with Initials

1211.01(b)(iv): Surname Combined with Title

1211.01(b)(v): Surname in Plural or Possessive Form

1211.01(b)(vi): Surname Combined with Wording

1211.01(b)(vii): Surname Combined with Domain Name

1211.01(b)(viii): Surname Combined with Legal or Familial Entity Designation

1211.02: Evidence Relating to Surname Refusal

1211.02(a): Evidentiary Burden – Generally

1211.02(b): Evidentiary Considerations

1211.02(b)(i): Telephone Directory Listings

1211.02(b)(ii): LexisNexis® Research Database Evidence

1211.02(b)(iii): U.S. Census Database Evidence

1211.02(b)(iv): Surname of Person Associated with Applicant

1211.02(b)(v): Specimens Confirming Surname Significance of Term

1211.02(b)(vi): Negative Dictionary Evidence

1211.02(b)(vii): Evidence of Fame of a Mark

1212: Acquired Distinctiveness or Secondary Meaning

1212.01: General Evidentiary Matters

1212.02: General Procedural Matters

1212.02(a): Situations in Which a Claim of Distinctiveness Under §2(f) Is Appropriate

1212.02(b): Section 2(f) Claim Is, for Procedural Purposes, a Concession that Matter Is Not Inherently Distinctive

1212.02(c): Claiming §2(f) Distinctiveness in the Alternative

1212.02(d): Unnecessary §2(f) Claims

1212.02(e): Disclaimers in Applications Claiming Distinctiveness under §2(f)

1212.02(f): Section 2(f) Claim in Part

1212.02(f)(i): Standards for Establishing Acquired Distinctiveness for Claims of §2(f) in Part

1212.02(f)(ii): Appropriate/Inappropriate Situations for Claiming §2(f) in Part

1212.02(f)(ii)(A): Appropriate Situations for Claiming §2(f) in Part

1212.02(f)(ii)(B): Inappropriate Situations for Claiming §2(f) in Part

1212.02(g): Examining Attorney’s Role in Suggesting §2(f) or Appropriate Kind/Amount of Evidence

1212.02(h): Nonfinal and Final Refusals

1212.02(i): Section 2(f) Claim with Respect to Incapable Matter

1212.02(j): Section 2(f) Claim Restricted to Particular Goods/Services/Classes

1212.03: Evidence of Distinctiveness under §2(f)

1212.04: Prior Registrations as Proof of Distinctiveness

1212.04(a): Sufficiency of Claim Vis-à-Vis Nature of the Mark

1212.04(b): "Same Mark"

1212.04(c): Goods or Services Must be "Sufficiently Similar"

1212.04(d): Registration Must Be in Full Force and Effect and on Principal Register or under Act of 1905

1212.04(e): Form of §2(f) Claim Based on Ownership of Prior Registrations

1212.05: Five Years of Use as Proof of Distinctiveness

1212.05(a): Sufficiency of Claim Vis-à-Vis Nature of the Mark

1212.05(b): "Substantially Exclusive and Continuous"

1212.05(c): Use "as a Mark"

1212.05(d): Form of the Proof of Five Years’ Use

1212.06: Establishing Distinctiveness by Actual Evidence

1212.06(a): Long Use of the Mark in Commerce

1212.06(b): Advertising Expenditures

1212.06(c): Affidavits or Declarations Asserting Recognition of Mark as Source Indicator

1212.06(d): Survey Evidence, Market Research and Consumer Reaction Studies

1212.06(e): Miscellaneous Considerations Regarding Evidence Submitted to Establish Distinctiveness

1212.06(e)(i): First or Only User

1212.06(e)(ii): State Trademark Registrations

1212.06(e)(iii): Design Patent

1212.06(e)(iv): Acquiescence to Demands of Competitors

1212.07: Form of Application Asserting Distinctiveness

1212.08: Section 44 and §66(a) Applications and Distinctiveness

1212.09: Section 1(b) Applications and Distinctiveness

1212.09(a): Section 2(f) Claim Requires Prior Use

1212.09(b): Claim of §2(f) "in Part" in §1(b) Applications

1212.10: Printing §2(f) Notations, §2(f) in Part Notations, and Limitation Statements

1213: Disclaimer of Elements in Marks

1213.01: History of Disclaimer Practice

1213.01(a): Discretion in Requiring Disclaimer

1213.01(b): Refusal to Register Because of Failure to Disclaim

1213.01(c): Voluntary Disclaimer of Registrable or Unregistrable Matter

1213.01(d): Disclaimer Offered in the Alternative

1213.02: "Composite" Marks

1213.03: Disclaimer of Unregistrable Components of Marks

1213.03(a): "Unregistrable Components" in General

1213.03(b): Generic Matter and Matter That Does Not Function as a Mark

1213.03(c): Pictorial Representations of Descriptive Matter

1213.03(d): Entity Designations

1213.04: Trade Names

1213.05: Unitary Marks

1213.05(a): Compound Word Marks

1213.05(a)(i): Telescoped Words

1213.05(a)(ii): Compound Words Formed with Hyphen or Other Punctuation

1213.05(b): Unitary Phrases

1213.05(b)(i): Slogans

1213.05(b)(ii): Grammar and Punctuation

1213.05(b)(ii)(A): Verbs

1213.05(b)(ii)(B): Prepositional Phrases

1213.05(b)(ii)(C): Punctuation

1213.05(b)(ii)(D): Possessives

1213.05(b)(iii): Other Considerations

1213.05(b)(iv): Unregistrable Unitary Phrases or Slogans

1213.05(c): Double Entendre

1213.05(d): Incongruity

1213.05(e): Sound Patterns

1213.05(f): Display of Mark

1213.05(g): Marks with Design Elements Replacing Letters

1213.05(g)(i): Marks with a Distinctive Design Replacing a Letter in Descriptive or Generic Wording

1213.05(g)(ii): Marks with Merely Descriptive or Primarily Geographically Descriptive Designs Replacing Letters within Descriptive or Primarily Geographically Descriptive Wording

1213.05(g)(iii): Marks with Accurate Pictorial Representations Replacing Letters in Merely Descriptive and Primarily Geographically Descriptive Marks

1213.05(g)(iv): Unitary Marks with Design Elements Replacing Letters in Descriptive or Generic Wording

1213.05(h): Unitary Marks: Case References

1213.06: Entire Mark May Not Be Disclaimed

1213.07: Removal Rather Than Disclaimer

1213.08: Form of Disclaimers

1213.08(a): Wording of Disclaimer

1213.08(a)(i): Standardized Printing Format for Disclaimer

1213.08(a)(ii): Unacceptable Wording for Disclaimer

1213.08(a)(iii): Unacceptable Statements in Disclaimers

1213.08(b): Disclaimer of Unregistrable Matter in Its Entirety

1213.08(c): Disclaimer of Misspelled Words

1213.08(d): Disclaimer of Non-English Words

1213.09: Mark of Another May Not Be Registered with Disclaimer

1213.10: Disclaimer in Relation to Likelihood of Confusion

1213.11: Acquiring Rights in Disclaimed Matter

1214: "Phantom" Elements in Marks

1214.01: Single Application May Seek Registration of Only One Mark

1214.02: Agreement of Mark on Drawing with Mark on Specimens or Foreign Registration

1214.03: "Phantom Marks" in §1(b) Applications

1214.04: "Phantom Marks" in §44 and §66(a) Applications

1215: Marks Composed, in Whole or in Part, of Domain Names

1215.01: Background

1215.02: Use as a Mark

1215.02(a): Use Applications

1215.02(b): Advertising One’s Own Products or Services on the Internet is not a Service

1215.02(c): Agreement of Mark on Drawing with Mark on Specimens of Use

1215.02(d): Marks Comprised Solely of gTLDs for Domain-Name Registry Operator and Registrar Services

1215.02(d)(i): Prior Registration(s) of the Same Mark for Goods or Services in the Same Field of Use

1215.02(d)(ii): Additional Proof that the Mark Used as a gTLD Will Be Perceived as a Mark

1215.02(d)(iii): Registry Agreement/ICANN Contract

1215.02(d)(iv): Legitimate Service for the Benefit of Others

1215.02(e): Section 1(b) Applications

1215.02(f): Section 44 and §66(a) Applications

1215.03: Surnames

1215.04: Descriptiveness

1215.05: Generic Refusals

1215.06: Marks Containing Geographical Matter

1215.07: Disclaimers

1215.08: Material Alteration

1215.08(a): Adding or Deleting TLDs in Domain Name Marks

1215.08(b): Adding or Deleting gTLDs in Other Marks

1215.08(c): Adding or Deleting "." in Marks for Domain Name Registry Operator or Registrar Services

1215.09: Likelihood of Confusion

1215.10: Marks Containing the Phonetic Equivalent of a Generic Top-Level Domain

1216: Effect of Applicant’s Prior Registrations

1216.01: Decisions Involving Prior Registrations Not Controlling

1216.02: Effect of "Incontestability" in Ex Parte Examination

1217: Res Judicata, Collateral Estoppel, and Stare Decisis